cbe

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
GBP
62.1019
63.3439
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258
,
CHF
54.1489
55.2319
,
SEK
4.6487
4.7417
,
NOK
4.9112
5.0094
,
DKK
6.8036
6.9397
,
DJF
0.2949
0.3008
,
JPY
0.355
0.3621
,
CAD
35.7798
36.4954
,
SAR
12.7797
13.0353
,
AED
13.0803
13.3419
,
XAF
0.012
0.0122
,
INR
,
KES
,
AUD
32.6996
33.3536
,
SDR
,
ZAR
,
CNY
6.9042
7.0423
,
KWD
165.1794
168.483

awash

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258
,
GBP
65.0282
66.3288
,
CAD
39.5357
40.3264
,
AED
14.4534
14.7425
,
CHF
56.7004
57.8344

abyssinia

USD
52.8333
53.89
,
GBP
57.1462
58.2891
,
EUR
52.0831
53.1248
,
AED
13.0173
13.2776
,
NOK
4.525
4.6155
,
SAR
12.7148
12.9691
,
SEK
4.287
4.3727
,
CAD
34.7916
35.4874

abay

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258
,
GBP
65.0282
66.3288
,
CHF
56.7004
57.8344
,
AUD
36.1321
36.8547
,
AED
14.4534
14.7425
,
CNY
7.629
7.7816
,
DKK
7.5178
7.6682
,
DJF
0.2949
0.3008
,
INR
0.6485
0.6615
,
JPY
0.3922
0.4
,
KES
0.4
0.4409
,
NOK
5.4267
5.5352
,
SAR
14.1212
3.1433
,
ZAR
3.0817
3.1277
,
SEK
5.1367
5.2394
,
SDR
70.5229
71.9334

zemen

CAD
39.5064
40.2965
,
EUR
55.332
56.4386
,
GBP
64.4691
65.7585
,
SEK
5.0667
5.168
,
USD
53.061
54.1222

buna

nib

berhan

wegagen

USD
53.0774
54.1389
,
GBP
62.1396
63.3824
,
EURO
55.8693
56.9867
,
CAD
35.7404
36.4552
,
AUD
32.7503
33.4053
,
CHF
53.6594
54.7326
,
SEK
4.5906
4.6824
,
NOK
4.8276
4.9242
,
DKK
6.7205
6.8549
,
DJF
0.2947
0.3006
,
INR
0.6494
0.6624
,
KSH
0.433
0.4417
,
JPY
0.3471
0.354
,
SAR
12.7667
13.022
,
AED
13.0617
13.3229
,
ZAR
3.1723
3.2357
,
CNY
6.7196
6.854
,
KWD
164.7021
167.9961

dgb

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
GBP
65.0282
66.3288
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258
,
CHF
56.7004
57.8344
,
CAD
39.5357
40.3264
,
AUD
36.1321
36.8547
,
SEK
5.1367
5.2394
,
NOK
5.4267
5.5352
,
DKK
7.5178
7.6682
,
DJF
0.2949
0.3008
,
INR
0.6485
0.6615
,
KSH
0.4323
0.4409
,
JPY
0.3922
0.4
,
SAR
14.1212
14.4036
,
AED
14.4534
14.7425
,
ZAR
3.0817
3.1433
,
CNY
7.629
7.7816
,
KWD
172.9627
176.422

enat

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
GBP
62.1019
63.3439
,
CHF
0
0
,
SEK
0
0
,
NOK
0
0
,
DKK
0
0
,
KES
0
0
,
JPY
0
0
,
DJF
0
0
,
CAD
0
0
,
AUD
0
0
,
SAR
0
0
,
AED
0
0
,
ZAR
0
0
,
CNY
0
0

addis

GBP
59.4718
60.6612
,
USD
52.1166
53.1589

nbe

KWD
126.8085
129.34467
,
CNH
5.6258
5.738316
,
ZAR
2.6751
2.728602
,
AED
9.9063
10.104426
,
SDR
57.7908
58.946616
,
EUR
48.4016
49.369632
,
CAD
28.7765
29.35203
,
AUD
28.3265
28.89303
,
JPY
0.3389
0.345678
,
SAR
9.7001
9.894102
,
INR
0.5525
0.56355
,
DJF
0.2234
0.227868
,
KES
0.3664
0.373728
,
DKK
5.8896
6.007392
,
NOK
4.2714
4.356828
,
SEK
4.3114
4.397628
,
CHF
41.5822
42.413844
,
GBP
53.539
54.60978

dashen

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
GBP
62.1019
63.3439
,
CHF
54.1489
55.2319
,
SEK
4.6487
4.7417
,
NOK
4.9112
5.0094
,
DKK
6.8036
6.9397
,
JPY
0.355
0.3621
,
CAD
35.7798
36.4954
,
SAR
12.7797
13.0353
,
AED
13.0803
13.3419
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258
,
DJF
,
INR
,
KES
,
AUD
,
ZAR
,
CNY

oromia

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258
,
GBP
65.0282
66.3288
,
SAR
14.1212
14.4036
,
CHF
56.7004
57.8344
,
AED
14.4534
14.7425

lion

USD
53.0886
54.1504
,
GBP
65.0282
66.3288
,
EUR
55.9076
57.0258

coop

Ethiopia Cracks Down on Black Market Forex Exchange as $1 Trades for Over Br.100

200 Ethiopian Birr note and a 100 dollar note to show the difference in black market

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

The black market for foreign exchange in Ethiopia has been exhibiting a rapidly increasing gap from the official bank exchange rate, passing through the 90-birr mark in early September before reaching the hundreds in October 2022. According to Borkena, $1 was fetching as high as 120 Ethiopian birr, a two-fold jump from the 53- birr banks were selling it for.

The matter was further complicated by the discovery of bank officials’ involvement involved in feeding the black market, along with the other two main culprits: diasporas and illegal Hawala agents. It was found that a single foreign Hawala operator sends forex up to 80 times every week.

In an effort to reverse what has now become a leading cause for the loss of considerable revenue to the government in addition to aggravating inflation, the National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) has introduced a series of regulatory measures against this illegal market. Although the central bank has launched crackdowns several times prior to this, they had been mostly ineffective.

What’s different this time? Well for one, NBE has introduced several incentive packages for informants who expose black market operators, in a bid to prolong the effectiveness of the measure and make it more appealing to citizens. According to Yinager Dessie, Governor of NBE, informants are rewarded with 25,000-birr per illegal hawala agent they expose and also get 25% of the cash apprehended.

To further hedge against other such activities, the amount of cash holdings outside of the bank is now 100,000-birr for individuals and 200,000-birr for businesses. Anonymous informants of excess holdings could get up to 15% of the seized cash value once the court ruled that the holding is illegal.

NBE has also put in a system that enables it to monitor irregular mobile banking, internet banking, and account transfers between locals and foreigners, as well as the domestic market. With these tools in place, the crackdown began.

On October 7, 2022, NBE revealed that the bank accounts of 391 illegal Hawala transfer providers had been frozen, with preparations underway to open legal suits via the Ministry of Justice. Two days later, on Monday, the Financial Intelligence Center (FIC) announced the number of frozen bank accounts had reached 665.

According to The Reporter Ethiopia, a week after the central bank announced this major clampdown on black market operators, the exchange rate in the parallel market dropped on average from 100-birr to 75-birr. As a result, the spread between the official and market exchange rates reduced from 47 to 29%. This effect was the opposite of the expected outcomes.

While such restrictions would push up the price of dollars in the black market, it seems that the demand has fallen faster than the supply of forex. As per the statement of a former broker in the market, none of the shadow market buyers, who are usually importers, investors, brokers, foreigners, and travelers, are coming to buy forex after the strike because they are afraid.

There is doubt, however, that these measures are permanent. As has previously happened, new black-market operators are bound to turn up, with more sophisticated and smarter operating systems. Many factors have stimulated the parallel market to bulge, and treating the effect rather than the root of the problem may yield only short-term relief.

The major reason driving the black market is the inability to access foreign currency from official sources due to the depleted forex reserve. And the devaluation is not helping matters either.

With regards to the forex shortage, the government has imposed a temporary restriction on importing 38 goods deemed unnecessary and aims to save close to 100 million dollars per year.

Among the major items barred from importation are automobiles, motorcycles, and three-wheelers, whose (already imported) prices might skyrocket as a result. Yinager, when asked by The Reporter, did not comment on the contribution of the ongoing devaluation to the expansion of the black market.